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There is, however, a much longer and much depression and anxiety treatment well-known history of oil and gas exploration and production in Europe.

Physical features of Europe. Published in 1906 by W. Johnston Limited, Edinburgh and London. Available from the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection. According to the BP Statistical Review of Energy 2017, the world's proved oil reserves (excluding self-sourced shale plays) are 1. The five European countries with appreciable oil reserves today are, Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum decreasing order of reserves at end-2015, Norway (8. Out of the world's total oil production of 92 MMBOPD (million barrels of oil per day) in 2016, these five European countries produced just 3.

The Western and Central European countries with Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum largest Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum proved gas reserves at the end of 2016 were Norway (1. The largest European and FSU gas producers in 2016 were Norway (116. Despite these figures, there is a long history of exploration, production and consumption of oil and gas in many parts of Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum, as well as of oil- and gas-related science and technology, much of which had a profound influence on the oil and gas industry worldwide.

Nevertheless, each episode is important because, beyond the well-known stories of successes Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum failures, there are various elements that enable us to gain new insights into the process of the development of the oil and gas industry in Europe.

This Special Publication brings together a series of important papers dealing with different aspects of the history of the oil and gas industry in the UK, Norway, France, Spain, Italy, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland and Romania (Fig. General map of Europe showing the areas covered by the papers in this volume. A bibliography of Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum published papers and books, primary and secondary sources, dealing with the history of the European oil and gas industry is provided at the end of this volume.

It is not comprehensive, and is intended only as a source of further reading. There is also a comprehensive gazetteer of the main oil and gas industry museums in Europe at the end of the volume. These can be an invaluable source of additional information for those who wish to develop a deeper knowledge of the development of the oil and gas industry in specific parts of Europe.

The manual gathering of Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum from surface seeps, rock crevices or shallow shafts was recorded in the chronicles of Europe during the late Medieval Age, but had been occurring since the classical age with oil obtained from such surface seeps being used by Greeks and Romans for Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum purposes.

In 1556, the German mining technologist Georges Agricola published De Re Metallica, in which he documented the use of heated petroleum. Forty years later, in 1601, Andreas Libavius, a German alchemist, published in the third volume of his Singolarium, the most detailed account on every known occurrence of light and heavy oil in Europe at that time.

In 1625, Johan Volck published a 30 page pamphlet, Description of the Hanau earth balsam, petroleum and soft agate stone, in which he detailed the advantages of refined oils. Many other contemporary scholars in Europe documented methods of refining petroleum, but these scientific advances had little impact on the socio-economic development of Europe at the time.

The methods used to produce petroleum in Europe remained almost unchanged between the sixteenth and the surgery oral half of the nineteenth century. Basically, it was a craft activity, carried out without specific mining tools that yielded limited quantities of petroleum.

Unlike coal, copper and iron, petroleum was not produced by a skilled labour force. Before oil products came into general commercial use during the last half of the nineteenth century, the exploitation of petroleum resources in Britain was restricted to a few Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum oil seeps, such as those found in Shropshire, near Formby in Lancashire, in the coal mines of Nottinghamshire and along the south coast of England.

Seeps of natural gas, both at the surface and in mines, have also been recorded in Great Britain for centuries. One of the earliest attempts to produce indigenous oil in Britain occurred on the banks of the River Severn in Shropshire.

In January 1694, British Crown Patent No. A third patent was issued in 1742, this one to Michael Betton, glazier of Wellington and his Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum Thomas, shoemaker from Shrewsbury, again citing the medicinal use of Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum oil (Torrens 1994).

He was the author of a landmark volume on the bitumen of the area, in which he presented all the possible uses of natural and refined bitumen. In France, the light Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum valuable oil called naphtha was collected in the region of Alsace, near the village of Pechelbronn (which means Pitch Spring).

The locals had scooped up the oil from the water spring since the fifteenth century and exploitation of the local tar sands mbti types compatibility in 1627.

In the 1810s, some wells were drilled to guide the location of the mine galleries. One of these wells penetrated a layer of sand containing oil at a depth of 77 m. However, the first important oil discovery Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum only achieved 135 years after the beginning of the oil mining in the area, when some wells dug mechanically in 1880 yielded oil in commercial quantities: 2860 wells had been drilled by 1916 and these produced 720 000 t (tons) of oil (Heritier 1994).

The oil fields of Pechelbronn were active until 1970 and were the birthplace of present-day companies such Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum Antar and Schlumberger. In 1786, a canal tunnel was driven into the side of the Severn Gorge, near Ironbridge in Shropshire, England, Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum a Quaker ironmaster, William Reynolds, to bring out coal from the local pits (Fig.

The tunnel struck a spring of natural bitumen in Carboniferous sandstones about 300 yards from the entrance and seeps along the length of the tunnel yielded as much as 450 gallons of bitumen a day (Trinder 1981).

Some was sold as medicine for the treatment of rheumatic and skin complaints, and some was processed for burning in lamps or converted into varnish. The rest was boiled in large cauldrons Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum the mouth of the tunnel to produce pitch that was used as a preservative for timber, for treating Cytarabine (Cytarabine)- Multum and for caulking ships decks (Morton 2014).

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