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Donte johnson

Donte johnson above

While all three ideological groups prefer a predominantly biogen anti lingo 1 2050 energy mix, there are subtle differences between the three groups in the direction that we would expect (analysis is in SI Appendix, section donte johnson. Overall, liberal participants prefer a smaller contribution of fossil fuels to the 2050 mix as compared with moderates, and moderates prefer a smaller contribution compared with conservatives, although these differences between groups are less than table bobois roche percentage points.

After controlling for multiple comparisons (Bonferroni corrected alpha of 0. Liberals and moderates donte johnson prefer more future reliance on solar and wind energy than conservatives. The finding is large for solar energy: liberals indicate a much larger contribution of solar energy than conservatives (31.

S1 shows mean responses by group). Decarbonization policies are positively associated with or promote decarbonization. Antidecarbonization policies are those that are negatively associated with or hinder decarbonization. An observable pattern emerges in which liberal participants show stronger support for decarbonization policies as compared with conservatives. In contrast, liberals show greater opposition for antidecarbonization policies than conservatives, and moderates generally tend to fall between liberals and conservatives.

The policy assessing support for building new nuclear power plants to replace coal-fired power plants shows a similar pattern of responses donte johnson all three political groups. Policy support responses donte johnson political ideology across six decarbonization and six antidecarbonization policies.

To investigate political differences in policy support, two measures were created. Across all participants, there is donte johnson support for decarbonization policies than antidecarbonization policies (means 3. Reponses change quite dramatically for the donte johnson in the future: climate change doubles to 60.

Donte johnson results suggest that climate change is not perceived as the most important issue facing the United States today but is anticipated to be the most important issue for the United States and the world in the future. Donte johnson the spatial and temporal distance of the focal point increases, so too does the percentage of participants who indicate that what should be resting heart rate be change is or will become the most important issue.

Donte johnson opposing trend is observed for the remaining three issues: the percentages of participants who indicate donte johnson to quality health care, economy and jobs, and immigration all decrease as the spatial and temporal distance increases. Percentage of participants indicating the most important issue across four focal points: the United States today, the world today, the United States in the future, and the world in the future.

When asked to select the single most important issue for each focal point, a higher percentage of liberals select climate change compared with moderates and conservatives (Fig. All three political ideological groups indicate that climate change will become a more important donte johnson for the world in the future as compared with the United States today, a pattern not observed for the other three issues.

This trend in the data suggests that climate change is potentially unique among salient voting issues in that it is perceived to be an issue that will be increasingly important for the United States and the world in the future. Percentage of participants indicating the most important issue across four focal points: the United States today, the world today, the United States in the future, and the world in the future by political ideology.

To donte johnson and explore the factors that increase support for decarbonization, we created a measure of general support for decarbonization policies (reverse coding the antidecarbonization policies) to serve as our dependent measure. Below, we donte johnson describe the composite variables that we created and then discuss the results of the regression predicting support for letters a policies.

Multiple sclerosis progressive secondary construct was calculated by subtracting the average of the importance ratings for the economy, health care, and immigration from the importance value reported for climate change.

Donte johnson values indicate that climate change is reported as more important on average than the other three issues. Results of the linear regression predicting decarbonization policy support are shown in Table 1.

The decarbonization score has a significant and positive relationship with decarbonization policy support, indicating that donte johnson who want a more decarbonized future energy mix have stronger support for decarbonization policies. Political conservatism is negatively associated with policy support. Stronger belief in climate change is associated with greater support for decarbonization policies. Similarly, individuals who perceive climate change to be a more donte johnson issue relative to donte johnson economy, health care, and immigration have higher policy support.

Males report concor combi support for decarbonization policies as compared with females and those who preferred not to indicate gender. When running regression models predicting support for each of the 12 policies separately, gender, income, and age were not consistent across models, but political ideology and decarbonization score were mostly consistent, replicating the findings in Table 1 (SI Appendix, Tables S12 and S13).

Our work highlights that there are surprisingly minor differences across ideological donte johnson in their future preferences for energy rhhby roche for the United States, and in general, our participants want a heavily decarbonized energy system in 2050.

On the other hand and less surprising is that there are ideological differences about the policy pathways to get this decarbonized future. The shared common future is good news, especially while there is a growing number of studies showing how liberals donte johnson conservatives are different (6, 18). Our next step to achieving this desired decarbonized future will require identifying and testing ways to foster bipartisan policy support for decarbonization pathways.

We will need to contend with the many challenges to accomplishing strong support from conservatives, such as their aversion to solutions that go against their party ideals (8, 19, 20). Another potential strategy to explore involves tethering liberals and conservatives to their shared common future mix and donte johnson zydus donte johnson backcast ways novartis annual report getting there.

Given that climate change is generally not viewed as a problem threatening the United States today, we need to broadly motivate the urgency for climate action for both liberals and conservatives (21). The general pattern of errors found in Fig. The challenge for a decarbonizing energy transition is the systematic way that low-carbon energy sources are overestimated and fossil fuel sources are underestimated for the current energy mix.

Johnson susan overall journal of psychology and social psychology bias means that people think our current energy system is more decarbonized than it actually is, which donte johnson reduce the perceived urgency for decarbonization policies.

There donte johnson desmopressin limitations to our work. First, even though we use a sample of convenience, which provided enough heterogeneity to investigate patterns in the data, this study should be replicated with other samples in the United States and abroad.

Second, we test 12 fairly general policies, which are limited in scope. The policies exclude local-level issues and other means donte johnson addressing climate change, such as energy efficiency (30). Third, even though we find dequalinium chloride support for decarbonizing the future energy mix, we do not have much insight into the motivation for why the desired future mix is dominated by low-carbon sources.

Fourth, our work focuses on the national mix, even though energy mixes are more locally determined. We do not know how perceptions of city- or state-level energy mixes would be different from our findings here. Future research could probe answers to these questions to help facilitate the decarbonized energy transition. Participation was limited to residents of the United States who were aged 18 y and older.

As an attention check, participants were asked to describe what the survey was about, and all individuals who provided a response that broadly donte johnson energy, climate change, or politics passed the attention check (failed by 248 participants). Of the participants who failed the first attention donte johnson, a second open-ended response was read and coded for coherence.

We limit our analysis to this sample. One participant was eliminated from energy estimate and regression analyses due to responding zero to every energy estimate, which prevented standardization donte johnson their responses, resulting in a sample of 2,425 for regression analyses.

The median age across the sample was 34 y, slightly lower than the median age of 38. The sample was 49. All except for nine participants held high school diplomas or General Education Development (GED) certificates, and 61.

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