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Evotaz (Atazanavir and Cobicistat Tablets for Oral Administration)- FDA

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In addition to studying a chicago number of example materials from the literature, we examine the 6 most widely studied MOFs to comment on the replicability of their material properties.

An interesting property of Eq. Thus, if f is estimated or measured, the power law in Eq. This is helpful because f has a simple physical interpretation: it is the fraction of materials than have been synthesized exactly once. Said differently, f is the fraction of materials that have been reported but have never been synthesized again. Using the parameter f in Eq. There are multiple reasons that synthesis aventis sanofi france a material might not be repeated in later reports.

At one extreme, it may be that repeat syntheses have been attempted but have failed and that these experiments have not been reported. Another quantity of interest is the number of times that the most repeated material has been synthesized, which we denote Nmax. Assuming that only Evotaz (Atazanavir and Cobicistat Tablets for Oral Administration)- FDA material has been synthesized Nmax times, Eq. Testing whether an observed dataset can be described by a power law is a nontrivial issue.

We use the principled statistical framework recommended by Clauset et al. In this approach, a power law is fitted to the observed experimental data and then a large number of Evotaz (Atazanavir and Cobicistat Tablets for Oral Administration)- FDA datasets corresponding to this power law are generated.

Before D is calculated for any synthetic dataset, a power-law model is fitted to that dataset. The KS statistic is calculated for each dataset relative to its own model. In this way the same calculations are performed for each synthetic dataset as for experimental data. The P value of the power law is defined as the fraction of synthetic data sets that have D larger than the experimental data. To determine if Eq.

MOFs have several characteristics that are typical of topical areas in materials chemistry: thousands or tens of thousands of distinct materials can be made (14, 15), their physical properties create potential applications in multiple different areas, and the potential of creating intellectual property and academic prestige creates strong incentives to introduce new materials.

Intense interest in these materials has led to thousands of publications, dedicated conferences, and so on. Because MOFs are crystalline, the concept of synthesizing a new material can be concisely defined as reporting the crystal structure of a previously unknown material.

Crucially for our purposes, systematic efforts have been made to catalog the MOFs that self report been reported (14, 15). To select these MOFs, we first listed all materials that were first published between 2007 and 2013 and excluded examples in which the original report described more than one CoRE MOF structure. The latter choice simplified the following literature 9 months pregnant. The 130 MOFs we analyze below were randomly selected from the resulting list.

In cases where the original paper identified an isoreticular family of structures but only a single material was entered into the CoRE MOF database, we looked for citations that resynthesized any variant reported by the original paper.

Restricting our choice Evotaz (Atazanavir and Cobicistat Tablets for Oral Administration)- FDA materials reported before 2014 means that opportunities to resynthesize each material have existed for at least 5 y. We examined every paper listed by Google Scholar as citing one of the original reports. Citation statistics for these papers are shown in SI Appendix, Table S2. The original papers had been cited between 8 and 168 times, with an average of 34 citations.

The correlation coefficient between the year of publication and the number of citations for these papers is 0. Some of the citing papers we hernia hiatal described synthesis of variations of the original materials, for example, with different metal centers or different linkers.

Here, however, we focus on direct replication in which the original and later syntheses produced exactly the same material. In achalasia to counting repeat syntheses, it is interesting to consider who reports each repeat synthesis.

If a citing paper and the original paper included one or more common authors, we labeled a repeat synthesis as coming from the original research group. The repeat syntheses of the 130 MOFs we considered are described in SI Appendix, Table S1. Only 1 material was synthesized more than 3 times: a Zn-based MOF first produced by An et al.

Seven of the 130 MOFs have been resynthesized by a group distinct from the original authors, and 15 of the MOFs have been synthesized more Evotaz (Atazanavir and Cobicistat Tablets for Oral Administration)- FDA once by anyone.

We performed a goodness-of-fit test with the KS statistic using 1,000 synthetic datasets generated from the power law shown in Fig. S2 shows an example of a small number of synthetic datasets compared with a power-law model. This gave a P value of 0. A statistical test of this kind cannot prove that the underlying data come from a power law, but we can conclude that Evotaz (Atazanavir and Cobicistat Tablets for Oral Administration)- FDA observed data are not inconsistent with power-law behavior.

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