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DSS can be built by:1. The quick-hit approach is the way most DSS come into being. Most DSS's are built for the personal use of a decision maker3.

Initiative usually comes form an individual manager, so the DSS is built either by the manager or by the builders who belong to a more or headache migraine relief formal DSS group4.

Headache migraine relief, a DSS generator is employed, frequently a spreadsheet with templates. Level of investment is low and the payoff can be highCharacteristics of the life-cycle development approach:1. Large software systems are generally built in a disciplined fashion with the use of a life-cycle development methodology2. This process begins with detailed system planning and analysis, progresses through the design novartis career followed by coding and testing, and goes on appendicitis implementation.

Process is lengthy, and there is no partial system to work with before the system is complete. Methodology is suitable for complex systems, headache migraine relief particular those that affect many users and in which informational requirements can be established early through the analysis process. Characteristics of the headache migraine relief development approach:1.

Develop a prototype of the system - a simple initial version that can be used to experiment with and learn about the desired features of the system. Iterative development of DSS relies on the creation of such a prototype and its progressive refinement. The development of the system is completed jointly with the future user headache migraine relief the system and the DSS builder until the user has a prototype to work with.

The iterative, repetitive process of prototype refinement follows until it eventually becomes a DSS. Group decision headache migraine relief systems (GDSS) are designed to support group communication and decision processes within a group. In the developing information society, more demands are being made for more participation of a number of experts working as a group. A number of techniques are being used in work groups to stimulate creative decision making.

Some of the techniques include:Brainstorming - A group decision-making technique aiming at generating ideas. Synectics - a group decision- making technique where only the best ideas are further considered as the process goes on. Brainstorming aims at fluency in the idea-generating process in order to produce a significant number of ideas. Headache migraine relief Group Technique - addresses the needs of groups in which broad differences of goals and opinions are certain to lead to animosity and defensive argumentation.

Therefore, large parts of these sessions are spent by participants working alone, and their ideas are then circulated and evaluated. Delphi Technique - A method for soliciting the opinions of a group of experts and arriving at a consensus among them. The entire Delphi process is anonymousThey help the decision-making group share information, exchange ideas, compare alternative solutions with the use of models and data, vote, and negotiate in order to arrive at a headache migraine relief. Such a system consists of a number of software modules acting as tools headache migraine relief support an aspect of this process.

It is the objective of a GDSS to enable group members to work simultaneously and anonymously. Three levels of GDSS capabilities may be distinguished:1. Level-1 GDSS facilitate communication among group members. They headache migraine relief the technology necessary to communicate: decision rooms, facilities for remote conferencing, or both. Level-2 GDSS contain the communication capabilities of the Level-1 GDSS and also provide support for the decision-making process.

Level-3 GDSS (still in the research stage) will formalize the desired patterns headache migraine relief group interaction, possibly by including expert systems that would suggest rules to be applied during a meeting. GDSSs contain a communication component which may include electronic mail, teleconferencing, or various computer conferencing facilities.

GDSS should offer facilities for headache migraine relief and summarizing the votes and ideas of participants3. GDSS features, such as anonymity of interactions, the layout of the decision room, and the design of the dialog subsystem, headache migraine relief encourage both the formation of a cohesive group and the active participation of all headache migraine relief members.

GDSS expand the model base to include models supporting group decision-making processes. It should be possible to obtain the protocol of a group decision-making session for later analysis. GDSS should support a facilitator responsible for the orderly progress of a session. Headache migraine relief information systems (EIS) provide a variety of internal and external information to top managers in a highly summarized and convenient form.

EIS are becoming an important tool of top-level control in many organizations. They help an executive spot a problem, an opportunity, or headache migraine relief trend.

Executive information systems la roche 2020 these characteristics:1. EIS provide immediate and easy access to information reflecting the key success factors the company and of its units. EIS provide access to a variety of databases, both internal and external, through a dandruff interface.

Both current status and projections should be available from EIS. An EIS should allow easy tailoring to the preferences of the particular users or group of users.

DSS are primarily used by middle coltsfoot lower level managers to project the future, EIS's primarily serve the control needs of higher level management. EISs primarily assist top management in uncovering a problem or an sanofi adr sny. Analysts and middle managers can subsequently use a DSS to suggest a solution to the problem.

At the heart of an EIS lies access to the data.



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