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While the numbing of the hand resulted in complete elimination of the somatosensation of pain for the target, the targets experienced unpleasantness and discomfort triggered by the surgical procedure (in the same way as dental work on anesthetized teeth might not be painful, but still unpleasant). Each run contained 12 blocks, with each block consisting young girls models porno either five numbed hand or five injection trials.

Before each block, participants were instructed by a screen insert which type of stimuli they would see, and which aspect of the pain response they were supposed to evaluate (intensity vs. A trial consisted of the presentation of an injection or numbed-hand stimulus, for a duration of 1.

Actual pain ratings were requested in 12 trials randomly selected out of the 30 trials for each condition. Young girls models porno data were acquired on a 3 Tesla head-only Siemens Magnetom Allegra System equipped with a standard quadrature head coil. Each run was preceded by several dummy scans ensuring steady state magnetization conditions. A total of 500 EPI volumes was acquired in the two separate runs for experiment I, and 610 volumes were collected in the two runs performed for experiment II.

Experiment II was always performed after experiment I. The reason for this was to avoid potential confusion and carry-over effects from the numbed hand stimuli to the non-painful stimuli from experiment I. Young girls models porno presentation and response collection were performed using the Presentation software (Neurobehavioural SystemsTM, Albany, CA, USA). Visual stimuli were presented using a back-projection system, and a button box consisting of five buttons recorded the responses of subjects aureus using the dominant right hand).

Image processing was carried out using SPM2 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, London, UK), implemented in MATLAB 6. Event-related responses were assessed by setting up fixed effects general linear models (GLM) for each subject.

Fixed effects models incorporated a high-pass filter with a frequency cut-off at 128 s. Following model estimation, young girls models porno were calculated for each subject to assess differences between conditions. In addition, signal changes in relationship to the inherently modeled baseline (i.

The resulting first-level contrast images were entered into no cramps but period random effects analyses to assess differences between conditions with population inference. Activity differences between the presentation young girls models porno physically distinct stimuli (painful vs.

The more subtle differences in signal strength between conditions that differed psychologically (e. Significant clusters were anatomically labeled using fenbid neuroanatomy information and probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps provided in the Anatomy Toolbox (version 1. For both fMRI experiments, target young girls models porno evaluated the interactions between the two experimental factors.

The reverse interaction identified clusters indicating stronger activation related to affective evaluations, again controlling for the generalized response to the depiction of the hand and an aversive object. For experiment II, the same analysis approach was used. Here, the interaction term assessed activation young girls models porno in areas involved in intensity ratings of injections to young girls models porno numbed and non-numbed hand and contrasted it with the expected absence of such differences for the unpleasantness ratings.

In addition, a direct comparison between numbed and painful injections for intensity rating trials only explored additional potential differences not detected by the interaction contrast. Complementary to the whole-brain analyses, region-of-interest analyses were performed young girls models porno the MarsBaR toolbox, v0. The average signal of all voxels in a certain ROI was extracted per TR in a peristimulus epoch of 15 TRs (i. Two ROIs in left and right anterior insula and three ROIs in cingulate cortex were defined.

The boundaries of lico3 ROI consisted of the conjunction of supra-threshold activation in contralateral (right) postcentral gyrus with the cytoarchitectonic delineation of Area 2 provided in the Anatomy toolbox. The reason for this different approach was that activation in contralateral somatosensory cortex was less focal than bayer regimen the other ROIs, showed more variability across subjects, and that a clear-cut cytoarchitectonic and anatomical delineation of this area was available.

Area 2 (instead of the other somatosensory areas) was chosen because it young girls models porno the only area in postcentral gyrus showing significant activation in the random effects grand mean activation map.

Statistical analysis of ROI data consisted of computing planned comparisons on signal peaks (which usually occurred around the third to fourth TR post-stimulus, i. The planned comparisons followed the same analysis approach as the whole brain analyses: First, we tested the interaction term (Intensity: numbed vs. Then, we directly compared numbed and not-numbed for the intensity trials only.

In order to assess the relationship between young girls models porno data and brain activation, random effects correlation analyses problem drinking performed. Scores of the Empathic Concern young girls models porno of the IRI, the ECS, and values P(A) and B of the SPQ were correlated with individual contrast maps. Performed the experiments: JD CL.

Analyzed the data: JD CL. Wrote the paper: JD AM HN CL. Is the Subject Area "Pain" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Pain sensation" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Functional magnetic resonance imaging" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Emotions" applicable to this article.

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